Lecture Notes

Frequency Adverbs

Frequency Adverbs

We use frequency adverb to describe how often an action is occurring.

Frequency Adverbs

 

Percentage

Always

100%

Almost Always

95-99%

usually

90-99%

Frequently

80-90%

Often

60-80%

Sometimes

50%

Occasionally

30-40%

Seldom

5-10%

Rarely

1-10%

Almost Never

1-5%

Never

0%

 

  Word Order

Subject

Frequency Adverb

Simple Present

Compliment

I

always

speak

English at home.

You

usually

speak

English at home.

We

frequently

speak

English at home.

They

rarely

speak

English at home.

He/She/It

never

speaks

English at home.

 

     

 

 

Time Clauses

The verb in the time clause is often in the present.

Subordinate/Dependent Clause (Time)

Main/Independent Clause

Time Word

Subject

Verb (present)

compliment

 

Before

we

have

a baby,

we will but a house.

When

he

wins

the lottery,

he won't quite his job.

After

she

retires,

 

she will retire.

When the sentence begins with a dependent cause, you must have a comma before the independent clause.

For example:

Before we register for level 4, we need to pass level 3.

 

When the sentence begins with an independent cause, you do not need a comma before the dependent clause.

For Example:

We need to pass level 3 before we register for level 4. 

 

 

 

When to use imperatives

Polite

Negative

Imperative Verb

Compliment

Commands

 

 

Open

The door.

Requests

Please

don’t

make

any noise.

Directions

 

 

Turn

left on North Ave.

Instructions

 

 

Take

all medication until finished.

Warnings

 

Don’t

take

medicine on an empty stomach.

Advice

 

 

Study

for the exam next week.

 

While imperatives usually ends with a period, they can also end with an exclamation point. 

Imperative verbs are verbs that create an imperative sentence.

Also, imperatives do not require a subject (a noun) in the sentence, since the subject is known to be the person who is receiving the command-you J

Imperative verbs do not leave room for questions or discussion, even if the sentence has a polite tone.

 

 

Be + Infinitives

The infinitive comes after the verb to express future actions or events such as a hope, a dream, or a goal.

Subject

Be

Infinitive (to + verb)

Compliment

My hope

is

to get

a job.

One solution

is

to take

classes part-time.

My dream

is

to have

my own business.

My goal

is

to get

a promotion.

 

 

 

 

Be + Gerund

The gerund comes after the verb to express results, solutions, secrets, or keys.

Subject

Be

Gerund (base verb + ing)

Compliment

My secret

is

rewriting

my class notes.

One solution

is

studying

when the children are sleeping.

The key

is

reviewing

your class notes regularly.

The result of studying hard

is

passing

the midterm exam.

 

Adjective/Comparative/Superlative

 

Adjective

Comparative

Superlative

 

1 Noun

2 Nouns

3 or more Nouns

One syllable adjective

Old

Safe

Big

Hot

Older

Safer

Bigger

Hotter

The oldest

The safest

The biggest

The hottest

Adjectives ending in y

Noisy

Dirty

Nosier

Dirtier

The noisiest

The dirtiest

Adjectives with two or more syllables

Boring

Beautiful

More boring

More beautiful

The most boring

The most beautiful

Irregular adjectives (must memorize)

Good

Bad

Far

Better

Worse

Farther

The best

The worst

The farthest

 

Must / Have to