A.Industrial Revolution

a.What is it?

i.      Civilizations no longer principally agricultural/rural

ii.      Mass production of goods by means of machine power – industrialization

iii.      Importance of trade and commerce skyrocketed

iv.      Urbanization

v.      Capitalism rules supreme

vi.      Metaphoric revolution – takes decades – no clear-cut beginning or end

vii.      But…can’t underestimate effect

1.       Changed life in Europe more thoroughly than political revolutions

2.New machines at hands of ordinary people

3.Effected how people work, where they lived, how they views political problems

4.Forced West to spread practices to colonies and exploit colonies economically


i.      Began in Great Britain in mid 1700s

1.Great Britain has large domestic deposits of coal

a.Japan lacks coal – needed territorial expansion

2.Enclosure movement – removal of land from farming

a.Common area gone – loss of livelihood for peasants

b.Now private land for private gain – you have motivation - mine

ii.      Causes

1.       Agricultural Revolution – Second Agricultural Revolution 18th century

a.Improved farming techniques

b.Up to half the population left farms for cities

i.      New industrial jobs becoming available

c. Why so much more crop yield?

                i. High yield crops – potatoes, corn from New World

                ii. Crop rotation instead of leaving fallow

                iii. New technologies

                                a. New machines for plowing, seeding, reaping

                                b. Chemical fertilizers

2.Increase in population

a.More food available

b.Less chance for famine

c.Life expectancy rose – population increase

i.      50% growth to 190 million from 1700-1800

d.Decreased death rate

i.      improved medical care

ii.      nutrition

iii.      hygiene sanitation