September 14 – 18 – Regular and Irregular Plural Nouns
Plural Nouns name more than one person, place, or thing.
û Add –s to form the plural of most nouns
picture - pictures wing - wings
û Add –es to nouns ending in ch, sh, x, z, s, and ss
box - boxes wish - wishes
class - classes bunch - bunches
û If a noun ends in a vowel and y; add –s
day - days boy - boys
û If a noun ends in a consonant and y; change y to i and add –es
city - cities lady - ladies
û Some nouns have Irregular Plural forms; they change spelling
man - men mouse - mice child - children
foot - feet goose - geese
û For most nouns that end in f or fe, change f to v and add –es
leaf - leaves knife - knives calf - calves
û Some nouns have the same singular and plural forms
sheep deer moose headquarters series
September 21 – 25 – Possessive Nouns
A possessive noun shows ownership. A singular possessive noun shows that one person, place, or thing has or owns something. A plural possessive noun shows that more than one person, place, or thing has or owns something.
û To make a singular noun show possession, add an apostrophe (‘) and –s.
the baby’s crib
Mrs. Jones’s house
û To make a plural noun that ends in –s show possession, add an apostrophe (‘).
the soldiers’ uniforms
the ponies’ saddle
û To make a plural noun that does not end in –s show possession, add an apostrophe (‘) and –s.
the men’s shoes
the children’s toys
September 28 – October 2 – Action and Linking Verbs
A complete sentence has a subject and a predicate. The main word in the predicate is a verb. An action verb tells what the subject does.
The river floods the town.
Action verbs can tell about actions that are physical (walk, carry) or mental (forget, understand).
A linking verb links, or joins, the subject to a word or words in the predicate. It tells what the subject is or is like.
The townspeople are afraid.
Forms of the verb be (am, is, are, was, were) are often used as linking verbs.
These verbs also can be linking verbs: become, seem, appear, feel, taste, smell, and look.
(I feel hungry. The pie smells delicious.)
However, some of them can also be used as action verbs.
(Feel this fabric. The dog smells many scents.)
October 19 – 23 – Main and Helping Verbs
Verbs that are made up of more than one word are verb phrases. In a verb phrase, the main verb names the action. The helping verb helps tell the time of the action.
Some common helping verbs are has, have, had, am, is, are, was, were, be, been, do, does, did, can, could, will, would, and should.
û The main verb is always the last word in a verb phrase.
Animals are losing habitats.
û There may be more than one helping verb in a verb phrase.
We should have saved more wetland habitats.
û Helping verbs such as is and are show that action is happening in the present.
Forests are cut down for wood.
û Was and were show that the action happened in the past.
Once millions of acres of forest were standing in this area.
û Will shows that the action is happening in the future.
Trees will disappear if we don’t conserve them.
October 26 – 30 – Subject-Verb Agreement
The subject and verb in a sentence must agree, or work, together. A singular subject needs a singular verb. A plural subject needs a plural verb. Use these rules for verbs that tell about the present time.
û If the subject is a singular noun or he, she, or it, add –s or–es to most verbs.
A horse runs. A dog chases the horse. It barks loudly.
û If the subject is a plural noun or I, you, we, or they, do not add –s or –es to the verb.
Horses run. Dogs chase the horse. They bark loudly.
û For the verb be, use am and is to agree with singular subjects and are to agree with plural subjects.
I am afraid. Paul is fearless. The armies are here. We are surprised.
û A collective noun names a group, such as family, team, and class.
A collective noun is singular if it refers to a group acting as one.
The class is going on a field trip.
û A collective noun is plural if it refers to members of the group acting individually.
The class are debating about which place to visit.