We will have whole and small group Rigorous and Relevant lessons

to help master all skills for FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS AND TCAP.  YES WE CAN!!!!!

Parts of Speech

Noun: Names a person, place, or thing-either abstract (Love is wonderful.) or concrete (The flower bloomed.)

Verb: Expresses action (He jumped.) or state of being (She will be late.)

Pronoun: Replaces a noun or pronoun (Tom found his watch.)

Adjective: Describes or limits nouns or pronouns (She is a pretty girl).

Adverb: Describes or limits verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs (He runs quickly.) Most adverbs end in LY

Preposition: Shows relationships between a noun or pronoun and another noun or pronoun (The towel was on the floor.) THINK OF A MOUSE BEING ABLE TO MANUEVER AROUND THE WORD. 

Conjunction: Links words, phrases, or clauses (Mary and I went home.)

Tips For Using the Parts of Speech

•Capitalize proper nouns: My uncle was in Desert Storm.

•Make nouns plural by adding -s or -es in most cases: The bears awoke.

•Make nouns possessive by adding -'s to singular nouns (dog's bone) or the apostrophe alone if the noun is plural (the Smiths' home).

• Singular nouns require singular verbs: My sister laughs often.

• Plural nouns require plural verbs: My sisters laugh often.

• A verb tense indicates the action of the verb.

Six Most Common Verb Tenses

Present (I walk.) Present Perfect (I have walked.)

Past (I walked.) Past Perfect (I had walked.)

Future (I will walk.) Future Perfect (I will have walked.)

Sentence Review

A predicate is the part of a sentence that tells what the subject does or is, or what is done to the subject.

Phrases are groups of related words that are missing either a subject or a predicate.

Clauses are groups of related words, with a subject or predicate, that are part of a longer sentence.

Sentences express a complete thought and have a subject and predicate.

Tips for Writing Good Sentences

• Fix run-on sentences by rewriting the sentence or adding punctuation between two independent clauses.

• Correct sentence fragments by adding the missing subject or predicate to phrases or subordinate clauses.

• Eliminate faulty agreement by making subjects and predicates agree in person and number.

• Avoid misplaced modifiers by keeping them near the word they modify.

• Prevent faulty parallelism by matching grammatical structures in a sentence.

• Combine short, choppy sentences and vary word order for a smooth style.

Commas should be used to join introductory clauses, after introductory clauses and phrases, to set off interrupting elements, with restrictive and nonrestrictive elements, with appositives, and between items or modifiers in a series.

Semicolons are used to join closely connected independent clauses and between items in a series.

Colons are used to introduce a list, formal statement, or restatement in a sentence.

• The dash, used to add interrupting phrases or clauses, and the parentheses, which sets off incidental information, should be used sparingly.

• Use quotation marks to identify quotes.

Punctuation usually belongs inside the quotation marks.

• Watch out for frequently confused words.

• Hyphenate most compound adjectives that appear before a noun.

• Generally, spell compound adjectives that follow a noun and words with prefixes or suffixes as one word.

• Most compound adverbs are spelled as two words.

• Experience and a dictionary can help you choose the correct idiom when writing.

• Eliminate cliches, jargon, faddish words, and slang in your writing.

• Avoid redundant expressions and wordiness in writing.

Improving the Writing Process

• Be aware of your audience.

• Choose a topic that is narrowly defined and interesting to you.

• Begin by writing a thesis, an assertion about your topic.

• Develop several logical main ideas to support your thesis statements.

• Avoid plagiarism by identifying other writers' research and words with citations.

• Paraphrase long passages or main ideas in your own words.

• Organize your main ideas and outline them in writing before you begin drafting.

• Introductions should catch the reader's attention and provide a general orientation.

• Paragraphs should be unified around a central idea and connected to one another and to other paragraphs through transitional devices.

• Conclusions should bring all your main ideas together and leave the reader thinking.

• Never bring up new points or apologize in the conclusion.

• Always carefully edit and revise your drafts.

Don't Play with Plagiarism

When you write your paper, you must cite any sources you use. As you research and take

notes, write down the information you'll need for footnotes. Check a style guide for the right

way to style your footnotes and prepare a bibliography. You'll be guilty of plagiarism if you

don't give credit for words or ideas that you borrow from others. Deciding what to footnote is

sometimes a tough call, but play it safe. If you have doubts, cite your source.

Directions:  Some sections have activities for you to complete. Write an example for each skill.  If you are advanced on that sill, skip it.  Study your notes nightly and read for 20-30 minutes every night.

Use ZB website to assess students.

Author’s purpose Interactive tutorials

Sequence Interactive tutorials

Making Predictions Interactive tutorial

Fact and Opinion Interactive tutorial

Making Predictions: PowerPoint Presentations

Using context clues:  Determine the meaning of unfamiliar words by using context clues, dictionaries, and

other classroom resources. (You might notice the following skills are addressed:

using context clues.)  - Read these sentences from the passage.

“When I was a little boy, as little as you are now,” he would say, “I wanted

to ride the horses. But I was too small to mount a horse.”

In the second sentence, “mount” means to get on

- Read this sentence from the story.

A few months after Simba’s arrival, Akimbo had gone to school one day

later than usual, and he had been scolded by the teacher, who believed in strict punctuality.

In this context, someone who believes in “punctuality”   this means to be on time

 1. Alliteration:  the repetition of the same beginning letter

Example: She sells seashells by the seashore.(S) Peter Piper picked a pack of pickled peppers. (P)

  1. Autobiography: the life story a person writes about their life and adventures
  2. Biography: the life story about a person written by another person.
  3. Character: the people or animals in a story
  4. Plot: a fictional story.  It has a beginning, middle, and ending with characters and a setting.
  5. Dialogue: a conversation between characters in a story.
  6. Climax: The climax of the story is the turning point of the story; the moment when the ultimate suspense reaches its peak.
  7. Conclusion: the ending
  8. Conflict: the problem in a story
  9. Resolution: the problem or conflict is solved.
  10. Fable: fictional story usually with a lesson learned. Often the main characters are animals.  
  11. Foreshadowing:  Foreshadowing is when, in a piece of literature, clues are put in to alert the reader of what might happen in the plot next. It's clues in a story hinting to what will happen in the end.

For example: "The clouds became dark gray and thunder roared loudly." This hints at a storm arising.

  1. Hyperbole: tall tale, exaggerating. Ex. My brother ate one million cookies.
  2. Personification: give human characteristics to an object. The sun smiled on me.   The moon laughed at the stars.
  3. Onomatopoeia: sounds that are words. Boom, ouch, pop, swish, swoosh
  4. Folk Tale: fictional stories passed down from generations
  5. Myth: a story from long ago dealing with supernatural experiences, heroes,
  6. Poem: writings rhyme, some do not.
  7. Setting: the time and place a story occurs
  8. Simile: comparing two things using like or as
  9. Theme:       powerpoint
  10. Main Idea: powerpoint
  11. Metaphor: comparing two things without like or as
  12. Synonym: words that have the same or similar meaning.  Frigid: cold
  13. Antonym: words that have different or opposite meaning. Puny: humongous
  14. Homophone: Words that sound alike but are spelled differently and have different meanings.

ant: aunt      bear: bare    son: sun

  1.  Homonyms: words that sound alike, spelled alike but have different meanings.

Bark: a sound a dog makes              Bark: the covering on a tree

  1. Compare: two or more things that are alike  (synonyms)
  2. Contrast: two or more things that are different (antonyms)
  3. Cause:  why something happened.  Key words:  because, so, since
  4. Effect: what happened
  5. Summary:
  6. Sequence: the order in which things happened. Example: first, next, last, then, finally
  7. Quotation Marks:    put the exact words a person says in quotation marks along with the punctuation mark.  Mark said, “The pipes in the kitchen are new.”
  8. Commas:  use commas in a series of words of three or more.

We purchased eggs, butter, milk, and cereal at the grocery store.

  1.  Author’s Purposes: Give an example for each. (PIES)
  1. persuade
  2. inform
  3. entertain
  4. share feelings

34. What are the four types of sentences?  Write an example for each. Use the correct punctuation mark.

1. Declarative (telling sentence) .

2. Imperative (Command) .

3. Exclamatory (strong emotions) !

4. Interrogative (question) ?

Subject: who or what the sentence is about. 

Predicate: tells what the subject is or does. (hint: find the verb and all the words after it)

Many of the workers   helped the bus driver push the bus.

Subject                            verb: help        predicate: helped the bus driver push the bus.

Adjectives: words that modify or describe nouns.  They tell what kind, how many, what color, size, shape, taste, smell.    The frigid weather caused me to catch the flu. The bright light blinded my eye for a few minutes. 

Adverbs (most end in ly). They describe or modify verbs.  They tell how, when, and where.

She carefully sat on the horse.  How? Carefully

         ADVERB     verb

Yesterday my family drove to Mississippi.  When? Yesterday

We arrived there at night. Where? there


Comparative Adjectives (use er) : adjective used to compare two things.  (MORE)

Mars is smaller than Venus. (two things)


Superlative Adjectives (use est): adjective used to compare more that two things.  (MOST)

The coldest planet of all is Pluto. (referring to all planets; more than two)

Helping Verbs: has, have, had

Linking Verbs: is, am, are, was, were

Main verb


Types of Poems:  Use your reading book or dictionary. Write and example for each.

Couplet: a two line poem

Limerick: five (5) lines, AABBA

Haiku: three (3) lines 5-7-5 syllables

Acrostic: spells a word downward.


Proper and Common Nouns

Proper nouns name specific people, places, things, or ideas.

Examples:   Britney, Paris, Rover, Nike

Since these nouns are naming specific things, they always begin with a capital letter.

Examples: Britney Spears, Central Park Zoo, Pacific Ocean

Common nouns are the opposite of proper nouns. They are your run of the mill, generic nouns. They name people, places, things or ideas that are not specific.  Examples: woman, city, dog, shoe

Since these nouns are not naming anything specific, they do not need to start with a capital letter unless they begin a sentence.

Singular Noun: one person, place, thing, or animal.  Baby, cookie, church, child

Plural Noun: more than one, person, place, thing, or animal Babies, cookies, churches, children

Possessive Nouns: shows ownership

First person point of view:  I, my me

Pronouns: A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun or another pronoun.

 Example:  Mary: she, her           Trust Bank: it         Sam: he, him

Antecedent, or referent, is the noun or nouns to which the pronoun refers. A pronoun and its antecedent must agree in number and gender.

Pronouns and Antecedents

A pronoun takes the place of a noun or nouns. An antecedent, or referent, is the noun or nouns to which the pronoun refers. A pronoun and its antecedent must agree in number and gender. Before you use a pronoun, ask yourself whether the antecedent is singular or plural. If the antecedent is singular, decide whether it is masculine, feminine, or neuter. Then choose a pronoun that agrees. In the following sentences, the antecedents are underlined once; the pronouns are underlined twice.

 Charlie participates in tennis and track for exercise. They keep him in shape.

Directions Circle the correct pronoun or pronouns in ( ) to complete each sentence. The antecedent of each pronoun is underlined to help you.

1. Will loves tennis because (it, he) takes strength and speed.

2. Iris practices figure skating, and (they, she) is good at it.

3. The twins play baseball, but bowling interests (them, they) too.

4. Exercise makes people feel good because (it, they) keeps (she, them) fit.

Directions Underline the antecedent once and the pronoun twice in each sentence.

1. An English doctor wrote about a disorder he observed in many children.

2. The children had stiff muscles, so moving was difficult for them.

3. As these children grew up, the condition did not grow worse, nor did it grow better.

4. Dr. William Little made the discovery, and he named the disorder Little’s disease.


Reflexive pronouns are personal pronouns that have "-self"  or  "-selves"  added to the end. 

Bob finished the homework himself

The reflexive pronoun is  "himself."

Indefinite pronouns are pronouns that do not refer to a specific person or thing.

Someone, anybody, and, everyone are indefinite pronouns.

Someone stole my wallet!

 The word "someone" is the indefinite pronoun.

A demonstrative pronoun is used to single out one or more nouns referred to in the sentence. 

This, that, these, and those are demonstrative pronouns.

These lemons are sour.

 The word "these" is a demonstrative pronoun.

Interrogative pronouns are used to ask a question. 

Who, whom, and which are interrogative pronouns.    Which shoes are mine?   The word "which" is an interrogative pronoun.

Dependent Clause: basically an incomplete sentence that is combined with a complete sentence.

Independent Clause: a complete sentence that is combined with a dependent(incomplete sentence).

Noun: word that names a person, place thing, or animal.

Girl, school, book, elephant  

Verb: a word that shows action. It is physical or mental. 

Dad painted the boat.  Painted is a physical verb.             My thought she heard a noise in the closet.  Thought is a mental verb.

A simple sentence expresses a complete thought. It has a subject and a predicate.

The Negro League formed in 1920.

The volleyball game lasted for one hour.

A compound sentence contains two simple sentences joined by a comma and a conjunction such as and, but, or or.

The athletes played several games a day, and they traveled on a bus.

I went to the movies last Friday, but my sister went to the mall.

A complex sentence contains an independent clause, which can stand alone, and a dependent clause, which cannot stand alone. The clauses are joined by a word such as if, when, because, until, before, after, or since. In the following sentence, the independent clause is underlined once; the dependent clause is underlined twice.

Many years would pass before the major leagues were integrated.


Subject/Verb Agreement Rule:   

Subjectverb agreement

o Choose the word or phrase that best completes the sentence.

In the sunshine, the wings of a butterfly __________ like jewels.

A. Glow

B. Glows

C. Is glowing

D. Has glowed

Prepositions:   A preposition is a word that relates a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence. "The dog sat under the tree."

  • aboard about above across after against along amid among anti around as at before behind below beneath beside besides between beyond but by concerning considering despite down during except excepting excluding following for from in inside into like minus near of off on onto opposite outside over past per plus regarding round save since than through to toward towards under underneath unlike until up upon versus via with within without


Conjunctions: and, or, but


Troublesome Words

to/two/too       they're/their/there        its/it's   set/sit   lay/lie  
PowerPoint on Troublesome Words 5th Grade

(sit/set; lie/lay; let/leave; teach/learn)
SPI 0501.1.4 Recognize usage errors occurring within context (e.g., double negatives, troublesome words: {to/too/two, their/there/they’re, lie/lay, sit/set, leave/let, learn/teach}).
 PowerPoint on Troublesome Words 6th Grade
(accept/except; affect/effect; can/may; between/among; principal/principle; capitol/capital)
SPI 0601.1.9 Recognize usage errors occurring within context (i.e., double negatives, troublesome words {to/too/two, their/there/they’re, its/it’s, sit/set, lie/lay, affect/effect, may/can, leave/let, teach/learn, accept/except, capitol/capital, principle/principal, between/among}).


Using Who and Whom


Using their, there, and they’re


Using Sit and Set


Using to, too, two


Using good and well

"Good" is an adjective or noun; "well" is usually an adverb. Say "I am doing good" only if "good" is a noun. For instance, charities can do good. Otherwise, use "well" with all verbs other than linking and be verbs. "I am doing good today" is incorrect (unless you are doing good things, like Superman) but you can say "I am good today."

Incorrect: "She cannot see good." (Use "well.")

Incorrect: "This car runs good." (Use "well.")

Incorrect: "This plan works real good." (Use "very well.")

Correct: "This plan sounds good." ("Good" follows the linking verb "sounds.")

Correct: "I am well today." ("Well" is an adjective showing my well-being and health.)

Using lay or lie

Use "lay" if you mean "put" or "place." Use "lie" if you mean "rest." "Lie" is intransitive and is thus used with prepositions such as "on" or adverbs such as "here." "Lay" is transitive and takes an object. The past tense forms are confusing. "Lay" is, in fact, the past tense of "lie," so you would say, "I lay in bed yesterday." Use "lain" with "to have": "I have lain in bed for two hours." If you mean "tell a lie," use "lied" in the past tense and with "to have." The "–ing" form for "lie" in either sense is "lying." For "lay," use "laid" in the past tense and with "to have."


Using this, that, these, and those

The adjectives this, that, these, and those tell which one or which ones. This and that modify singular nouns. These and those modify plural nouns. This and these refer to objects that are close by. That and those refer to objects farther away.

This shirt I have on is like that one in the store window.

These pencils just fit in the pocket, but those pens on the desk did not fit.

• Do not use here or there after this, that, these, or those.

No: This here article is about NASA. That there one is about new computers.

Yes: This article is about NASA. That one is about new computers.

• Do not use them in place of these or those.

Directions Which underlined part is correct.

1. A That there space capsule is smaller than I realized.

B That space capsule is smaller than I realized.

2. A I think them astronauts were brave to travel in it.

B I think those astronauts were brave to travel in it.

3. A Is that spacesuit the one worn by John Glenn?

B Is those spacesuit the one worn by John Glenn?

4. A This here time line shows the history of space flight.

B This time line shows the history of space flight.

5. A Robert Goddard helped design these early rockets.

B Robert Goddard helped design them early rockets.

Directions Write each sentence. Use the correct adjective in ( ).

6. Will (that, those) storm reach Florida today?

7. If it does, NASA will postpone (this, these) shuttle launch.

8. Use (them, those) binoculars to view the launch.

Using the articles (an, a, the)

Use a before a consonant.

Use an before a vowel.

Using contractions: will not  =  won’t

Using double negatives

A negative is a word that means "no." Many negatives contain the word no within it. Some negatives include the contraction-n't. Never use two negatives in one sentence.

Wrong: I do not have no money.

Correct: I do not have any money.

1. Julie hadn't (ever, never) eaten in the cafeteria.  ever

2. She couldn't find (nowhere, anywhere) to sit.  anywhere

3. Julie (wouldn't, would) never forget your birthday.  would

4. I (never, ever) want to see you again.   never

Tense means time.

Past tense (ed)                                                The bear walked.

Future tense (will ______)                       The bear will walk.

Present tense (s)                                             The bear walks.


Direct Objects

The direct object is found in the predicate part of the sentence. It tells what the subject did something to.

Roneisha hit the ball to Nautica.        

Subject: Roneisha                     

 verb hit         

predicate: hit the ball to Nautica                                        

direct object  Nautica 

Who hit the ball? Roneisha (subject)

What is the verb? Hit

What is the predicate? Hit the ball to Nautica.

Who or what did Roneisha hit the ball to? Nautica (direct object)

Subject                                              Verb                             Predicate                                          Direct Object

The team




Took the bones What did they do?


What did they take?

The team


followed the Toureag Tribe

Toureag Tribe



spotted a special place

Special place



used tools


Dr. Sereno


led the dig


The jackets


protected the fossils



Visual Mood:  identify the mood in the picture.  (powerpoint) Show different screen shots.

GLE’s/SPI’S: Grade 5 Reading/Language Arts: SKILLS TO REVIEW

Antonyms, synonyms, homonyms: SPI 0501.1.13 Select appropriate synonyms, antonyms, and homonyms within context.

Main verbs, linking verbs, helping verbs, singular and plural verbs: SPI 0501.1.2 Identify the correct use of verbs within context.  SPI 0501.1.2 Identify the correct use of verbs (i.e., action/linking, regular/irregular, agreement, tenses) within context.

Possessive nouns, plural nouns:  0501.1.1 Know and use appropriately the meaning, forms, and functions of nouns (including common/proper, singular/plural, possessives, predicate nouns)

Subject and Predicates:   SPI 0501.1 Identify the correct use of nouns (i.e., singular/plural, possessives, predicate nouns, nouns as objects) and pronouns (i.e.,

agreement, subject, object) within context.

Types of sentences (punctuation marks) 0501.1.5 Use correct end of sentence punctuation.

Fact and Opinion: SPI 0501.5.3 Distinguish between fact/opinion and reality/fantasy.

Author’s Purpose: SPI 0501.8.9 Identify the author’s purpose (i.e., to inform, to entertain, to share feelings, to describe, to persuade).

Prefixes/Suffixes: SPI 0501.1.12 Recognize root words, prefixes, suffixes,  and syllabication as aids in determining meaning within context.

Characters, Plot, Settings, Theme (Fictional stories) SPI 0501.8.1 Identify setting, characters, plot, and theme.

Point of View:  SPI 0501.8.5 Recognize that a story is told from first person point of view.

Cause and Effect:  SPI 0501.5.2 Identify stated or implied cause and effect in a passage.

Figurative Languages (all) SPI 0501.8.7 Identify similes, metaphors, personification, and hyperbole in context. SPI 0501.8.8 Identify the effect of sound within context (i.e., onomatopoeia, alliteration, rhythm, rhyme, repetition).

Context Clues:  SPI 0501.1.16 Determine the correct meaning/usage of multiple meaning words within context.

Main Idea: SPI 0501.6.4 Identify the stated main idea and supporting details in text.

Drawing Conclusions: SPI 0501.5.1 Locate information to support opinions, predictions, and conclusions.

Predictions:  SPI 0501.8.2 Recognize reasonable predictions of future events within a given context.


Vivid Words: 0502.3.16 Use precise language, including vivid words and figurative language.

Compare and Contrast:  0501.3.5 Compare and contrast two persons, places, things, or ideas.

Sequence: SPI 0501.5.7Indicate the correct sequence of events.

Visual Mood: SPI 0501.7.3 Identify the mood created by a visual image.

Compound/Complex Sentences Independent and Dependent Sentences:  0501.1.14 Eliminate reliance on simple sentences by combining independent clauses, by creating compound subjects and/or predicates, by using introductory phrases or clauses, or by appropriate use of a semicolon.

Spelling Rules:  handout SPI 0501.1.7 Identify correctly or incorrectly spelled words in context, including the correct spelling

 WRITING:  SPI 0501.3.13 Complete a graphic organizer (i.e., clustering, listing, mapping, webbing) to group ideas for writing.

SPI 0501.3.8 Select vivid and active words for a writing sample.

SPI 0501.3.10 Select appropriate time-order or transitional words/phrases to enhance the flow of a writing sample.

Writing Prompt:    T-Chart, who, what, when, where, why, Points 1,2,3 and hook.  Introduction, 1,2,3, Conclusion.